Thursday, May 21, 2020

Evaluation Of A Multi Grade Special Education Classroom

Overview of Instructional Unit Students will be instructed how to count coins, bills and mixed coins and bills over several days. Instruction and practice will be completed with preinstructional activities to review and instruct students on coins and paper currency. The fourth day of instruction will include counting mixed coins and bills. Goal of Instruction Given play money, students will count mixed coins and bills accurately to and provide the correct change when pretending to be a cashier. Students will be expected to score at least 80% on the written and hands on assessment. Target Population Overview This is a multi-grade special education classroom grades five through eight. Disabilities presented in this classroom†¦show more content†¦1.2 What is the coin value 1.2.1 Penny = 1 ¢ 1.2.2 Nickel = 5 ¢ 1.2.3 Dime = 10 ¢ 1.2.4 Quarter = 25 ¢ Performance Objective 2: Given a coin up to a quarter, students will identify the value of the coin with 100% accuracy. Task 2.0 Identify bills and their value 3.1 Identify bill 2.1.1 One dollar bill 2.1.2 Five dollar bill 2.1.3 Ten dollar bill 2.1.4 Twenty dollar bill Performance Objective 3: Given paper currency to a Twenty dollar bill, students will identify the bill by name with 100% accuracy. 3.2 What is its value 2.2.1 One dollar bill = $1.00 2.2.2 Five dollar bill = $5.00 2.2.3 Ten dollar bill = $10.00 2.2.4 Twenty dollar bill = $20.00 Performance Objective 4: Given paper currency to a Twenty dollar bill, students will identify the value of the bill with 100% accuracy. Task 3.0 Count coins 3.1 Start with largest coin 3.2 Use touchpoints 3.3 Count by 5’s Performance Objective 5: Given mixed coins, students will count the mixed coins to one dollar with 90% accuracy. Task 4.0 Count bills 4.1 start with the largest bill Performance Objective 6: Given mixed bills, students will count the bills to twenty five dollars 90% accuracy. Task 5.0 Count mixed coins bills 5.1 Count bills 5.1.1 Start with the largest bill 5.2 Count coins 5.2.1 Start with the largest coin 5.2.2 Use touchpoints 5.2.3 Count by

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Battle Of The Civil War - 2196 Words

The Civil War was the bloodiest, most severe war with the greater part of America s history. It sets kin against kin and father against tyke and realized a bigger number of passings than most of America s war before or since combined. The purpose behind the Civil War was no single event or action, regardless, a mix of various events and exercises. It was a sort of snowball effect, in any case this snowball had a stone in within - subjection. Oppression was likely the greatest single contributor to the opinions of ruthlessness and scorn between the North and South. Exchange events that incited the normal war are what really drove people over the edge, and some were more convincing than others. The first of these was the Compromise of†¦show more content†¦This idea got the chance to be known as Surely understood Sovereignty. The response for the issues showed was devised by Henry Clay. He suspected that California should be going into the Union as a free state and all other dr awing nearer locales would vote. He moreover proposed more stringent Fugitive Slave Laws and the removal of slave trade from the District of Columbia. To wrap things up consolidated into this exchange off was the course of action to settle the points of confinement of Texas and acknowledge its $10 million commitment. The accompanying issue that incited the Civil war was the Dred Scott Decision. Dred Scott was a dull slave that lived for quite a while in Illinois with his ruler. He sued for his chance in perspective of his drawn out keep centered soil. The Supreme Court heard the case and chose that consequent to Dred Scott was a dim slave, he was not a national and along these lines not allowed to sue. The Court took the choice further, saying that consequent to a slave was property, they could be taken into any space and be held there under the laws of enslavement. The choice relied on upon the fifth change, which denied Congress the benefit to strip people of their property withou t due method of law. Southerners were fulfilled by the triumph for the circumstance, however abolitionists all over were sickened at the possibility that subjugation could honestly spread

Sample Contents of Feasibility Study Free Essays

string(70) " specializing in the practice of obstetrics and gynecologic services\." Sample Executive Summary For Your Business PlanApril 5, 2011 – 11:14 am Earlier in Invest Engine Blog we have talked about  executive summary contents  and  how to write executive summary. Using all this information we shall now pass to actually writing an executive summary taking restaurant business plan as an example. Writing executive summaries is among the most important business skills. We will write a custom essay sample on Sample Contents of Feasibility Study or any similar topic only for you Order Now The majority of investors whom you’ll address with your project will read your executive summary first. And only then will decide whether to proceed with your start up or leave it alone. So let’s get started! 1. Executive Summary Cover Passing along a naked text is not a good idea. So do provide a cover for your executive summary. The executive summary cover page should contain: * your company logo; * the title of your project; * your contact information; * the subtitle â€Å"Executive Summary† (not to confuse this document with the full version of your business plan). 2. The Opening Statement: Who? What? When? Where? Why? From the very first sentence it should be understood what your project is about. Showing respect to your readers’ time and attention is highly appreciated. So if you can answer the  Five W’s  in a single sentence, it is perfect. But sometimes it is better to break it down into smaller sentences. And DO avoid general phrases and adjectives like â€Å"great†, â€Å"unique†, â€Å"exclusive† as they make you look boastful right from the start. From the cover page of our  sample restaurant executive summary  the reader knows that the project is called: â€Å"BBQ-5 – barbecue restaurant in Chicago, IL†. So the opening statement of the executive summary could be: â€Å"BBQ-5 is a new barbecue restaurant in Chicago, IL founded by Mr. BBQ. This will be the fifth restaurant of â€Å"Mr. BBQ Family of Restaurants† – the barbecue chain founded in 2005 and is already well-known in The Great Lakes area. † 3. Brief Company ProfileYou are sure to provide some detailed information about your company background, its mission and business objectives in your business plan. But the major highlights should be put into executive summary as well. Typically you are expected to say: * When was your business founded? * What are the major industries and regions of operations? * What are your business mission and business objectives? How many people work in your firm? * What is your position in the company? In the sample executive summary we are going through it is stated that  Ã¢â‚¬Å"the  chain was founded in 2005 and is already well-known in The Great Lakes area† (the info about the year the business was founded and the region of operation is provided). And so it is continued: â€Å"The other restaurants ar e located two in Cleveland, OH, one in Detroit, MI and one in Milwaukee, WI. Each of the restaurants started by Mr. BBQ reached the break-even point within a year. Though Mr. BBQ and Mrs. BBQ are principle owners, it is Mr. BBQ’s  intention to offer outside ownership in â€Å"BBQ-5? restaurant on an equity, debt, or combination basis in order to facilitate the opening of BBQ-5 restaurant and further growth of the chain. † From this paragraph it is clear that the principal figures in the company are Mr. BBQ and Mrs. BBQ and their major business goal is  Ã¢â‚¬Å"further growth of the chain†. 4. Project Description Normally executive summary should always be written last. You already have a perfectly written product description in your business plan and can now copy-paste the highlights into your executive summary. It should really take minutes! In the business plan for BBQ-5 restaurant it was stated that location is a key success factor. So in the executive summary it would be perfect to start with the advantages of the location and target audience of the restaurant: â€Å"BBQ-5 will be opened in leased premises in the very heart of Chicago – the Loop district. The Loop is the center of Chicago’s cultural, commercial and financial institutions. It is also the major tourist destination. And the neighboring district – The North Side – is the most densely populated residential section of the city. It is also a popular take-away destination. So BBQ-5 will target residents of The Loop district, office workers and tourists. † Then we briefly describe restaurant’s projected capacity, its specialization and the key competitive advantages (these are also copy-pasted from the business plan): â€Å"The restaurant will specialize in traditional style barbecue meals: smoked pork, veal and fish, steaks and sandwiches. The menu will also include a variety of vegetarian meals and the widest range of sauces. The restaurant’s projected capacity is 340 seats. After that you can outline main business objectives of the project showing that you have a clear vision and know your goals. Then write a paragraph about major risks of your project but stay positive providing your solutions right away. Stress the strong sides of your company and the competencies of the team behind the project. 5. Key Business Plan Numbers By the moment you write executive summary you are supposed to know  exactly  how much funding you need. So provide the highlights in the form of investment summary table. It puts investment structure vs. nvestment purposes of your project. So anyone reading your executive summary will understand what you need money for, how much of your own capital you invest and how much is expected from other sources (direct investment, bank loans, start up grants etc. ) Also state how much revenues your project will generate (revenue projections) and of course the payback period of your project – how long will it take for your project to become cash flow positive. ple Projects  Ã‚  Sample #4| Sample #4| [The data in this form is either fictitious or has been adapted with a firm’s permission. Company: Bentonville Medical Clinic   Contact Person: George Hendrichs Title: Business Manager/Administrator Telephone: (910) 273 – 8457 Fax: (910) 273 – 5419 Address: 413 Harmon Place, Greensboro, NC 27412BackgroundProvide an overvi ew of the company, the nature and size of the primary product(s)/service(s) and operations, and a brief description of the department/function/product that is the main focus of the study. Bentonville Medical Clinic is a 12 year old medical firm specializing in the practice of obstetrics and gynecologic services. You read "Sample Contents of Feasibility Study" in category "Essay examples" The main office, located in Greensboro, is where the primary administrative functions such as coordination, billing, insurance claims, etc. are carried out, but the firm is also comprised of two satellite offices located in Reidsville and Eden. The firm employs 1 administrator, 7 clinical personnel, 9 clerical workers, and 5 physicians, who rotate through each of the three offices on a regular basis. Gross revenues for 1991 were roughly $3. 1 million, as a result of 37,000 patient encounters. The bulk of the revenues are taken in by the Greensboro office, which accounted for 72% of all receipts. Revenues grew regularly through 1990, but have leveled off since then as a result of the efforts of the government and other agencies to control health care expenses. Some primary points of emphasis for Bentonville Medical Clinic are: (1) maintenance of high quality of patient care, through the regular and efficient assimilation of new technologies, (2) continuous improvement of business efficiencies and cost reductions, and (3) provision of a reasonable return on investment for the firm’s partners. The Project To Be StudiedDescribe the situation to be studied, and if possible, identify the specific issue(s)/problem(s) to focus on. One of the basic problems with health care today is the government wishes to control health costs, yet demands the highest quality of service available. Often, the government wishes only to pay amounts for these services that barely exceed the cost a medical firm incurs in providing them. The focus of the group will be to evaluate the costs of various types of patient visits versus the payment plans instituted by the government (the RBRVS system that calculates costs for medicare, for example), and determine how these plans affect Bentonville Medical Clinic’s cash flows and revenues. Outputs DesiredWhat specific results would be expected, e. g. reports, recommendations, etc. Outputs desired from this study include:(1) Determination of the amount of medicare volume that can be profitably handled;(2) Identification of the various costs involved in particular types of patient encounters (which types of visits are most/least profitable for the firm)(3) Determination of how cash flows being affected by programs such Medicare’s RBRVS cost conversion factors(4) Suggestions for some possible alternatives/strategies through which Bentonville Medical Clinic can maximize revenues in the current environment. Required/Available Resources- (List special or unique data, software, personnel, etc. required, or available):Summary/Key Word Information:Estimated team size: 2-3 person team   How was project obtained? : Referred by John Adams, Alum Previous Project? : No Project Focus – Primary: Accounting/Finance Other areas: Strategy, Health Administration Keywords: Costing, and cash flow analysis Brief Abstract: Contrast patient visits with reimbursement plans to assess the equity of payments received and determine their affect on overall cash flows and revenues. | Sample #1| [The data in this form is either fictitious or has been adapted with a firm’s permission. ]Company: Comfort Apparel   Contact Person: Sam Talbott Title: Marketing Manager Telephone: 336. 555. 1234 Fax: 336. 555. 1234 Fax: (336) 745-7025 Address: 1234 Comfort Blvd. , Winston-Salem, NC 27123BackgroundComfort Apparel manufactures and markets high-quality, high-value apparel using screen printing and embroide ry. Comfort holds exclusive contracts with several boards of education in the Southeast to provide shirts, hats and sweatshirts with school logos for state championships in all major sports. Other boards are being pursued for contracts. A significant volume of business is obtained through short-term contracts with colleges, universities and sports associations to provide logo apparel for ceremonies and sporting events. Comfort provides consumer value by offering a high-quality embroidery look at prices comparable to regular screen-printed products with quick turnaround on short notice. The Project To Be StudiedAt Comfort, ordering, scheduling, invoicing, inventory control and shipping are done manually. Management decided to switch to an electronic system because of frequent and often unanticipated surges in volume, as well as recent overall growth. Several of Comfort’s accounts have requested EDI systems and other electronic media, including use of the Internet, to process orders and shipping. The study group will be responsible for determining what system could capitalize on emerging technology and be most appropriate for the company and how best to implement the system. The study will look at three main operating areas: * Information systems between Comfort and our manufacturing operations * Information systems between Comfort and our customers * Information systems between Comfort and our suppliersThe team must propose whether members will focus on one, two or all of the above applications. Outputs Desired * Provide Comfort with a list of information systems that capitalize on the latest technology and that could be installed and implemented, along with pros and cons of each * Propose a schematic design and determine the costs and benefits of each alternative * Recommend the best alternative and provide a plan for implementation| Sample #3| [The data in this form is either fictitious or has been adapted with a firm’s permission. ]Company: Gourmet House Software Services   Contact Person: Rachel Benedict Title: Director of Development Telephone: (910) 277 – 2347 Fax: (910) 277 – 9547 Address: 1600 Watley Plaza, Winston-Salem, NC 27011BackgroundProvide an overview of the company, the nature and size of the primary product(s)/service(s) and operations, and a brief description of the department/function/product that is the main focus of the study. Gourmet House Software Services is a relatively small â€Å"software house† that specializes in software for restaurants and wholesale food distributors. The purpose of this type of software is to allow the user to better and more efficiently purchase and utilize their inventory and delivery systems. Gourmet House System is going into its twelfth year of business, and they estimate that they have roughly 160 users of their specialized software. The Project To Be StudiedDescribe the situation to be studied, and if possible, identify the specific issue(s)/problem(s) to focus on. The current computer system software being sold by Gourmet House is a third generation software component. They feel it is necessary to upgrade their software to a fourth generation, but want to make sure they can successfully market this new product to existing customers, as well as to other potential markets. The study group should concentrate on the following areas:(1) The various methods that could be used to market this new product to current market segments, while maintaining support and customer satisfaction for older products;(2) Identify any other feasible markets for this new product. Outputs DesiredWhat specific results would be expected, e. . reports, recommendations, etc. The outputs desired from this project would be as follows:(1) A list of options and an action plan for the introduction of the new software component(2) A risk analysis of the planned introduction, complete with benefits and drawbacks. (3) Financial considerations involved (ROI, etc). Summary/Key Word Information:Estimated team size: 2-3 person team   How was project obtained? : Wilson Thomas, Alum Previou s Project? : No Project Focus – Primary: Marketing, Strategic Planning Other areas: New Ventures, Business Strategy Keywords: Marketing and identifying new niches Brief Abstract: Recommend a marketing plan for a fourth generation of a software package and identify new markets the firm might enter in order to increase revenues and profits. | Sample #2| [The data in this form is either fictitious or has been adapted with a firm’s permission. ]Company: Mountain Broadcasting Company Contact Person: Ms. I. M. Astarr Title: President Telephone: (910) 253-7827 Fax: (910) 253-1329 Address: 4321 Galaxy Boulevard, Mt. Airy, NC 27411Background-  Provide an overview of the company, the nature and size of the primary product(s)/service(s) and operations, and a brief description of the department/function/product that is the main focus of the study. Mountain Broadcasting Company is a locally-owned radio company which operates under the call letters of WMBC (FM) and WNCB (AM). It employs 17 people, including 6 salespeople. The Project To Be Studied-  Describe the situation to be studied, and if possible, identify the specific issue(s)/problem(s) to focus on. Mountain Broadcasting contacted the Schools of Business to conduct a survey and analyze the results to determine what factors are critical when current and prospective advertisers make the decision to use radio as an advertising medium. Mountain Broadcasting also wanted to learn how effective its salespeople were compared to the competition, be it radio stations, television stations, or magazines and newspapers. Mountain Broadcast hoped to learn what it could to ultimately leading to an improvement in the company’s profitability. Outputs Desired-  What specific results would be expected, e. . reports, recommendations, etc. Outputs desired from this practicum include:(1) Which local sales staffs within the industry are perceived as most competent/least competent? (2) What affect do program formats and program contents have on advertisers’ decisions to buy? (3) How do the rates charged by WMBC and WNCB compare with other stations and how are they perceived by their cust omers with respect to the value received? (4) What affect do promotional support, purchase incentives, and the buying procedure have on the purchasing decision? 5) Which stations are perceived as most effective for reaching specific demographic targets? (6) How do stations’ production capabilities affect their advertising rates? Methodology-  Possible strategies and analytical tools to employ. The data for this study will be generated by telephone interviews of approximately 100-200 prospective advertisers. The prospects will include current radio and non-radio advertisers, current customers, and non-customers of the stations, and direct advertisers and agencies and/or media brokers. The team will be supplied by the client with the list of prospects. | * ————————————————- About Us * ——————————â €”—————- Academic Programs   * ————————————————- Admissions * ————————————————- Beyond Academics * ————————————————- Careers Internships * ————————————————- Diversity * ————————————————- Faculty Research * ————————————————- News Events * WFU Charlotte Center | | Home  Ã‚  Beyond Academics  Ã‚  WF Business Solutions  Ã‚  Sample Projects  Ã‚  Sample #1| Sample #1| [The data in this form is either fictitious or has been adapted with a firm’s permission. ]Company: Comfort Apparel   Contact Person: Sam Talbott Title: Marketing Manager Telephone: 336. 555. 1234 Fax: 336. 555. 1234 Fax: (336) 745-7025 Address: 1234 Comfort Blvd. , Winston-Salem, NC 27123BackgroundComfort Apparel manufactures and markets high-quality, high-value apparel using screen printing and embroidery. Comfort holds exclusive contracts with several boards of education in the Southeast to provide shirts, hats and sweatshirts with school logos for state championships in all major sports. Other boards are being pursued for contracts. A significant volume of business is obtained through short-term contracts with colleges, universities and sports associations to provide logo apparel for ceremonies and sporting events. Comfort provides consumer value by offering a high-quality embroidery look at prices comparable to regular screen-printed products with quick turnaround on short notice. The Project To Be StudiedAt Comfort, ordering, scheduling, invoicing, inventory control and shipping are done manually. Management decided to switch to an electronic system because of frequent and often unanticipated surges in volume, as well as recent overall growth. Several of Comfort’s accounts have requested EDI systems and other electronic media, including use of the Internet, to process orders and shipping. The study group will be responsible for determining what system could capitalize on emerging technology and be most appropriate for the company and how best to implement the system. The study will look at three main operating areas: * Information systems between Comfort and our manufacturing operations * Information systems between Comfort and our customers * Information systems between Comfort and our suppliersThe team must propose whether members will focus on one, two or all of the above applications. Outputs Desired * Provide Comfort with a list of information systems that capitalize on the latest technology and that could be installed and implemented, along with pros and cons of each * Propose a schematic design and determine the costs and benefits of each alternative * Recommend the best alternative and provide a plan for implementation| | How to cite Sample Contents of Feasibility Study, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Stone Backpack of Perfectionism free essay sample

I walk treacherously back to my dorm with a stone backpack of perfectionism. It haunts me daily. I get to my dorm. I take off my backpack. In my stone backpack of perfectionism is filled with preconceptions. These preconceptions are like red markers. When I see red on my paper I get scared because I know that means my work wasn’t good enough. My preconceptions vary from thinking â€Å"I will fail†, â€Å"I won’t make the word count†, â€Å"My professor won’t understand where I’m coming from†, â€Å"My grammar will be incorrect†, â€Å"My ideas won’t be clear†. The more red bold markers that fill my backpack the heavier it weighs me down. These red markers represent the preconceptions that fill my backpack. These preconceptions started from when they were my reality. When I was younger seeing an F wasn’t something new. Making the word count was a shocker for me. We will write a custom essay sample on Stone Backpack of Perfectionism or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page A teacher understanding where I’m coming from never happened. My thoughts were always all over the place. Seeing my grammar correct was a rare occasion. My ideas were usually just as all over the place as my thoughts were. Each preconception is its own red marker. These red markers have made me feel petrified as a kid and still do now. These preconceptions and need for perfection started at a very young age. Since I can remember I’ve always strived for perfection especially in school. Due to having a learning disability school has always been a struggle but that’s never stopped me from trying to be perfect. Inside my backpack are blocks. The blocks are from testing. When I had to do testing there was a block activity when you would use blocks to match a picture. The pressure that was put on me when testing as a child made me feel anxious. Perfectionism to me is like a phobia, it’s the fear of making a mistake. I feel as though the results of my mistake will be catastrophic when I do make a mistake. This catastrophic mistake is like a black hole to me. The black hole is life less and draining. It sucks out my ability to write, focus, and fathom ideas. This black hole weighs me down even more than the red markers do. Having an abusive father never made anything easier. Although the idea of someone may seem light, my dad is the heaviest object in my backpack. The pressure of him always around makes me always strive for perfection in fear of what he may do if I dont reach it. Since I can remember I’ve always felt as if I was walking on eggshells. My dad always expected perfection and nothing less. Because of that I always strived for it. Having something less than perfect meant consequences and that scared me so I always tried my best to please him. When I lived with my dad it was always unexpected as to what was going to happen. Carrying around a stone backpack of perfectionism is like having a constant reminder to try to be perfect but it always backfires because perfection isn’t easy nor is it real. Unfortunately, for myself and for people like me that strive for perfection they end up in a never ending cycle of disappointment. I aim for the best grade possible but when I end up with a check/check plus I feel pathetic. I feel that I could’ve tried harder or that my effort, dedication, and hard-work that I did put in goes unnoticed. It’s like a stab in the back, and that knife remains in my backpack to stab me again. There have been numerous times where this has happened and it only gets worse in my opinion. People always say the feeling of failure gets better but it’s just a sharper pain next time around. Next time I do try harder. I put in more effort. I’m more dedicated. I work harder and this time I end up with the same grade. By doing this I make myself stuck in a never ending cycle of setting myself up for failure by having unrealistic expectations of perfection. Having unrealistic expectations just ends up leaving me disappointed. It’s one ticket to a never ending roller coaster of more downs than ups sitting at the bottom of my backpack. Striving for perfection is something I think everyone has tried to do at least once in their life but I feel like we forget that perfection isnt real. There’s a unicorn in my backpack to remind me the perfection isn’t real. I’ve learned that perfection isn’t real but constructing goals and wanting to achieve them isn’t wrong either. Sometimes people, including myself reach a self-destructive mindset where they train themselves to think or have been trained by others to think that they aren’t good enough if they don’t have perfection or their less than someone else. I now know that isn’t true. To represent my self-destructive behavior is a toy monster truck in my backpack. I can remember how rough my younger brother would be when he’d play with his toy trucks. He would break them sometimes. For me I sleep for endless hours to cope with getting a bad grade. It leaves me broken just like those toy trucks. From my time in ENL 105 I’ve learned what I have about perfection. Most importantly that it isn’t real. Perfection is like a mind game. It plays with your head, your thoughts, your goals. Wanting to achieve perfection can be disastrous. On my way to finding voice and through feedback and realization I have come to terms with the fact that my best is my best and that’s okay. I should still set goals and try my best to achieve them. Achieving my best is me putting in hard work, determination, and perseverance. It looks like me in my dorm, hopefully quiet, typing away for hours. To keep me focused I have prescribed Adderall in my backpack. Hard work, determination, and perseverance also looks like my code meshing/ code switching paper where I received a check plus. This made me feel good about myself, I had a smile on my face and that’s why there’s a smiley face sticker in my backpack. In my backpack is multiple erasers for all the mistakes I’ll make but will erase and continue trying. When I was younger I struggled to find my voice. When Im struggling my voice is weak and tired. Papers were always a struggle. As I grew older it became a bit more manageable but I did still struggle. Now in ENL 105 I have found my voice. I’d be lying if I said I didn’t struggle at times but I have resources and people that are willing to help me now. My voice now has gotten stronger. ENL 105 has taught me a lot. It’s taught me being in the present moment, different audiences, voice, no voice, real voice, writers block, new vocabulary, denotation, connotation, summary, paraphrase, quotation, prewriting, and intrapersonal rhetoric. Being in classroom 101A has been transforming. I’ve become a better writer. Lastly, inside my backpack is teddy bear that represents Professor Peary and all that she has taught me and all that I have gained from the class and will carry on to ENL 110.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Study of Knowledge Essay Example

Study of Knowledge Essay Example Study of Knowledge Essay Study of Knowledge Essay Epistemology – The Study of Knowledge Jeff Castro PHI 200 Dr. Akins February 4, 2013 Epistemology – The Study of Knowledge The study of knowledge has always been the journey toward truth and understanding. Epistemology deals with the creation and distribution of knowledge in certain areas of inquiry. Humans should be free to gain, study and question knowledge and claims without repercussions in any social, cultural or religious setting. As we move forward in our understanding of life, religion and nature, we have changed our way of thinking through philosophy. We are less ignorant and uneducated about the truths of the world and how we as human beings perform in it. Knowledge and the confirmation of knowledge can be confirmed by propositional and procedural knowledge or knowledge by acquaintance. Propositional knowledge is expressed in declarative sentences or indicative propositions of one’s knowledge based on the known or knowing that. If someone says â€Å"all birds have feathers† they are stating or asserting a proposition that is factual or somewhat factual. Procedural knowledge is the knowledge used in the performance of a task, such as knowing how to replace brakes on a vehicle. It is learned knowledge through doing that act. Knowledge by acquaintance is experience based knowledge learned through casual interaction, such as knowing a place or person well (Mosser, 2010). Knowing for certain is always questionable because everything can be challenged. For the three identified ways of attaining knowledge, the most challenged one is propositional knowledge. Propositional knowledge receives the most skepticism because of the statements it brings forward, like â€Å"I believe that†, â€Å"I know that† and â€Å"I think that† (Steup, 2005). These statements are based on one’s beliefs, thoughts and ideas which can be questioned. If knowledge is based on one’s beliefs or opinions it will bring challenges, but remember an individual’s ideas based on beliefs or opinions should respected. We are certain of the other two due to experiencing or performing acts to solidify the knowledge. But then still can be questioned because of different procedures or experiences can still result in a different or validation of an outcome or answer. To justify what we really know is inherited, learned or experienced. We cannot really be certain of our knowledge because we can be tricked or limited by our sense that provides us this information to confirm or deny what we know or learn. Knowledge at one point is imperfect, but the truth at that point and is reinforced by the progress of science to be an absolute truth to some degree and as Vladimir Lenin says, There is no impassable boundary between relative and absolute truth. (Bogdanov, 1908). The normal order of the world is how we perceive it through our senses. It can play tricks on us and deceive through illusions that the mind receives from sight, sound, taste and touch. How humans recognize what is real and not real through their senses is known as empiricism (Mosser, 2010). Empiricists view that there is no such thing as innate knowledge, but instead knowledge is received from experience. On the argument side you have rationalism which view knowledge to be innate. It argues that the knowledge of God, mathematics and science cannot be explained by the senses (Mosser, 2010). But this does contradicts how we learn, because without the senses how do we learn mathematics, science or the knowledge of God (the bible). Innate knowledge is derived from the mind, but requires other things to support or build the mind, the senses. Let’s break down the five senses (vision, sound, touch, smell and taste) and try to understand what can be limited and why. Vision can be received or altered based on the ability to distinguish objects, the depth or field, color, contrast, or even color blindness. Sound can be affected by the volume or pitch that is received by the ears. Touch can be affected by your haptic perception and how sensitive one’s outer skin is. Smell and taste can be affected by our bad habits (smoking and drinking), disease or medications. So the limitations of one’s senses can fool and be limited by our own doings and by the aging process (Gwizdka, 2010). Cognitive relativism is the idea of the knowledge we hold of the real world requires assistance from our mental/mind to build and support and that things being the truth or false are relative to a society, group or individual. I also realize that there are cognitive bias, notational bias and culture bias, which prevents us from seeing or analyzing something objectively with our senses (empiricism) which we cannot discount. So to really assert a position of truth would depend on who interprets it based on moral, ethical, or social view (Slick, 2012). Friedrich Nietzsche developed perspectivism which supports cognitive relativism in that there are many possible perspectives to determine any possible assessment of the truth to be determined. This means that there is doubt and uncertainty about how we see the world and the truth about it based on perspectives. The limits to human perception or cognition are bounded by each individual and how they can comprehend or process what they are receiving. The processing of the knowledge can be expanded upon through the use of one’s innate knowledge. We limited ourselves based on what we only know and what is in front of us. If we can make sense of the world beyond what our senses take in we would be much better off, but remember it is all based on one’s perspective of faith, ideas, thoughts and knowledge. Skepticism is originally was defined as someone who simply looked at things and now it is someone who doubts claims. Skepticism forces claims to be justified (Mosser, 2010). When assessing epistemology on the bases of what is known and the unknown we will still question everything for it is uncertain that we really know the truth about something. Yet there will still be limits on what we question because some are based on faith, which is an individual’s belief in their religion. There are several types of skepticism: moral, religious, metaphysical and scientific. Each identifying a particular area to question or doubt, but what I find most questionable or intriguing are the religious skepticism or theological skepticism which examines faith-based claims and scientific skepticism or empirical skepticism which uses the scientific method of examining claims. Religious skepticism does not mean one would be either an Atheist or Agnostic. These skeptics question religious authority, but are not anti-religious just because they question specific or all religious beliefs or practices. One of the first religious skeptics was Socrates, he questioned the legitimacy of the beliefs during his time of the existence of various gods and this led to his trial and execution. Scientific skepticism seek proof through deductive argument before accepting any knowledge in any area, such as health claims, environmental claims, parapsychology, etc. Carl Sagan originated scientific skepticism and was a world-famous astronomer and astrophysicist well known for supporting the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI) and questioned that there was more than earth in our and other vast universes. There is also a sub-set of scientific skepticism which is call activist skepticism who seek to expose or prove false publicly what they see as the truth behind extraordinary claims (Klein, 2000). Socrates claimed that he knew one and only one thing: that he knew nothing, which was in line with being a Pyrrhonist. He questioned everyone who claimed to have knowledge, hoping to learn from them, but he never claimed that gaining knowledge was impossible and never claimed to discover any knowledge. As such proof of never recording anything to prove or disprove his knowledge (Mosser, 2010). Sagan wrote in his publications â€Å"Too much openness and you accept every notion, idea, and hypothesis- which is tantamount to knowing nothing. Too much skepticism- especially rejection of new ideas before they are adequately tested- and you’re not only unpleasantly grumpy, but also closed to the advance of science. A judicious mix is what we need. (Sagan, 1995). Both men were skeptics who believed in questioning and challenging claims and exhibited a fascination with discovery. I believe it is in our nature to question everything to ensure we have validated the claim, but as Sagan has stated there is a fine line before tilting it too far to the left or right. I believe the two skepticisms try to get at the answer of how humans came to being. The religious skeptic will question all religions by comparing claims and questioning why to find the ultimate truth of our existence and our true meaning. The scientific skeptic will require proof in the way of science before accepting knowledge to be true (Munchin, 2011). By taking the two and trying to analyze and form a more complete set of questions to develop a more sensible truth or theory behind the human existence would possibly help me understand or rationalize the questions of â€Å"why† and â€Å"how† in my mind. But I understand there are limits to what I chose to believe as my ideas or perceptions (Shogenji, 2011). The decision between right and wrong is relative to one’s society or cultural background. Relativism in the Muslim world would be a death sentence (honor killing) and we would see it as radical relativism. It is easily defendable in their culture and country because it is viewed as a norm or way of life, but not so within most other countries. It is all about perspective because we to at one time burned people at the stake for being witches. Ignorance and lack of education or knowledge made it defensible and accepted at that time. So is radical relativism defensible, it is all about an individual’s or country’s perspective, religious beliefs and culture to decide one way or the other (Mosser, 2010). The basic understanding of philosophy and how it affects our lives is sometimes transparent to most people because they only do without thinking. We have gotten so busy with our tethered lives we do not take the time to question why something is true or not, we move around like mindless beings. Epistemology gives us that way to question and seek knowledge to validate truth and to hope to truly understand the â€Å"why† and â€Å"how† of our lives and everything in and around us. Humans should be free to gain, study and question knowledge and claims without repercussions in any social, cultural or religious setting. But this is an ongoing battle to be free from repercussions or persecution of our thoughts, ideas and actions when publically projected. Some countries and cultures still lash out in the way of medieval and barbaric manner at anything that does not fit their way of life and interactions, but it is all relative and it still falls within the study of philosophy. Choosing to accept this or not, based on beliefs, ideas and religion is your choice, but to understand and have a greater degree of insight of knowledge and truth is true epistemology. References Bogdanov, A. (1908). Absolute and Relative Truth, or the Eclecticism of Engels. Retrieved from: marxists. org/archive/lenin/works/1908/mec/two5. htm Gwizdka, J. (2010). Human Perception Cognition. Retrieved from: http://comminfo. rutgers. edu/~jacekg/teaching/ITI230_HCI/2006_4f/lectures/Lecture3. pdf Klein, P. (2000). Contextualism and the Real Nature of Academic Skepticism. Retrieved from: jstor. org. proxy-library. ashford. edu/stable/pdfplus/3050570. pdf? acceptTC=true Mosser, K. (2010). A Concise Introduction to Philosophy. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Munchin, D. (2011). ‘Is theology a science? ’ Paul Feyerabend’s anarchic epistemology as challenge test to T. F. Torrance’s scientific theology. Retrieved from: http://search. proquest. com. proxy-library. ashford. edu/cv_756002/docview/894110952/fulltextPDF/13C00235777679CB0A0/4? accountid=32521 Sagan, C. 1995). Wonder and Skepticism, Vol 19, Issue 1. Retrieved from: positiveatheism. org/writ/saganws. htm Shogenji, T. (2011). Internalism and Externalism in Meliorative Epistemology. Retrieved from: http://search. proquest. com. proxy-library. ashford. edu/cv_756002/docview/1111853938/fulltextPDF/13C06554AFF58193594/1? accountid=32521 Slick, M. (2012). Cognitive Relativism. Retrieved from: http://carm. org/secular-movem ents/relativism/cognitive-relativism Steup, M. (2005). Epistemology. Retrieved from: http://plato. stanford. edu/entries/epistemology/

Monday, March 2, 2020

The Complete Guide to Grants for College

The Complete Guide to Grants for College SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If you know you’ll need to get financial aid to make college more affordable (most students do, by the way), then you should definitely learn everything you can about grants. They happen to be some of the best forms of financial aid you can get. Here, I’ll tell you exactly why grants are so great and why you should seek them out. Then, I’ll get to the important stuff: where and how you can get your own grant awards. Let’s get started! What Are Grants for College? Grants are sometimes called â€Å"gift aid.† Grant money is funding that you don’t have to work for (like work study) and that you don’t have to pay back (like loans). At this point, you may be thinking that college grants sound pretty similar to scholarships. And you’re right - they generally work in the same way in that you don’t have to pay back either type of funding. The major difference between grants and scholarships is that grants are usually primarily based on financial need, whereas scholarships are often merit-based or need- and merit-based. Why Are Grants so Great? College grants are awesome forms of financial aid because they lower your college costs immediately and forever. Other forms of financial aid - loans, specifically - are helpful when you don’t have the money to pay for college, but they can become a burden after you graduate because you have to pay them back (plus interest). Loans are band-aids that cost you money in the long run - this doesn’t mean that they can’t be helpful and important forms of financial aid, but grants are superior to loans because you get the money up front and are under no obligation to pay back the funds later on. Another reason why grants are so great? Because they tend to be need-based, they’re often awarded to students who need them the most. Although there are definitely financial aid opportunities out there for students who come from more privileged backgrounds, grants are primarily awarded to students with very limited financial resources. Where Can You Get Grants for College? There are a few major sources of grants for college students. Because there’s no standardized application, protocol, or eligibility criteria for all grants available to college students, things can seem a bit complicated at first. Not to worry, though - things aren’t as complicated if you’re able to break down grants by funding source. Here are the most important places to find grant funding, along with basic eligibility criteria for each funding source. Federal Government - Eligibility requirements for federal grants are laid out in our Pell Grant guide. Overall, the requirements are pretty lax - the major ones are that you need a high school diploma or GED, and you need to be enrolled (or accepted to enroll) in a college or career school. State Government - Eligibility requirements for state-based grants will, unsurprisingly, vary by state. At the very least you should meet all federal requirements in addition to being a state resident. Get more detailed information about state financial aid programs. Your School - In the context of this post, I’m defining a grant as an award that’s strictly need-based. Schools may award grants or â€Å"scholarships† that are based on financial need, not merit, to students who have been accepted and need help paying the full Cost of Attendance. Eligibility reqs will vary by school, but some schools tend to be more generous than others. If you only take away one piece of information from this section, it should be this: the most well-known grants are the ones offered through the federal government. The application process and eligibility requirements are very standardized, so the grants are very predictable. Predictability means you can estimate a budget for your grant awards before you even apply! Federal sources should be your first consideration when you start looking into grant opportunities. Federal Grants for College There are many different federal grant options, each with their own requirements and award amounts. Here, I’ll cover the main federal grants and what you should know about them. Pell Grants - These are for students who haven’t yet earned a bachelor’s or professional degree. The maximum award for 2016-2017 is $5,815, although the amount you get is determined by your financial need. This is the largest and most important federal grant program. FSEOG (Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant) - These are for undergraduate students with exceptional financial need. They’re administered directly by the financial aid offices at participating schools, and are therefore called â€Å"campus-based† aid. Recipients get between $100-$4,000 per year depending on financial need. TEACH Grants (Teacher Education Assistance for College and Higher Education) - These are different from most other grants because they have some strings attached. The awards are meant to help students pay for college if they plan on becoming a teacher in a high-need field in a low-income area. To keep the grant from becoming a loan, you need to take certain kinds of classes and get a certain kind of job. Students can get up to $4,000 per year. Iraq and Afghanistan Service Grants - Students whose parent or guardian died as a result of military service in Iraq or Afghanistan may be eligible for these grants. The grant maximum is the same as that of the Pell Grant, which is $5,815 for 2016-2017. These awards can cover a pretty significant chunk of your college expenses, especially if you’re also getting aid from other sources, like outside scholarships or school-based financial aid. State Grants for College State grant amounts and eligibility will vary based on where you live. Sometimes you just need to fill out a FAFSA to be considered for state grant aid, whereas other times you’ll need to fill out a separate financial aid application. The good news is that almost every state education agency has at least one grant or scholarship available to residents. For more information, look into grant availability for your state. Grants from Your College or University Just like with state grants, institutional grant aid availability and eligibility will vary based on the school you attend. Many highly ranked schools offer relatively large amounts of grant aid based on financial need. Some schools offer impressive amounts of merit aid in order to attract competitive applicants. There are a couple of ways you can get more info about typical grant aid at a particular school: Check out that school’s net price calculator (almost every school has one on its admissions and/or financial aid website). You enter in your financial and sometimes academic information, and the tool spits out an estimate of the amount of aid you’d receive if you attended that school. Google â€Å"[school name] PrepScholar tuition† for our page on that school’s grant, scholarship, and loan availability. The page will walk you through estimating your own aid eligibility at that school. Example: The first search result link here is the one you want. How Do You Apply for Grants? Now that you have a better idea of why grants are awesome and how much money you can actually get, the next step would be to submit those grant applications. So where do you start? Again, the process for applying for college grants depends on where the money comes from. Here, I’ll break down application processes for the major sources of grant funding. Federal Government You may not have expected this, but the federal government actually makes it pretty easy to apply for grant funding (and all federal funding, really). You just have to submit one application: the FAFSA. You’ll need to gather quite a bit of financial information for both yourself and your parents before you start, but once you have that paperwork the actual application shouldn’t take long. Get step-by-step instructions on how to complete your FAFSA. To estimate the amount of aid you’ll be eligible for before you even submit your FAFSA, read about how to use the FASFA4caster. State Government Unfortunately, some states don’t make it quite as easy to apply for grants. You’ll have to do your own research on what your state of residency requires. Learn more about specific state aid availability and application processes. Your School Oftentimes, your application for grant money (at least for your freshman year) is your college application - you may not need to submit any additional paperwork, which really streamlines the whole process. To double-check that you’re not missing out on any grant opportunities at a specific school, just Google â€Å"[school name] grants and scholarships.† There should be a page on that school’s financial aid website with more information on available aid - just make sure you’re only looking at awards for undergraduate students at the grade level you’re entering. For more information on school grant aid, check out these posts: Schools with the best financial aid Schools with 100% financial aid How to win a full ride scholarship Other Options for Financial Aid If you’re on the lookout for need-based aid, there are other options out there besides grant funding. Scholarships Many private and nonprofit organizations offer scholarships (remember, scholarships often include merit requirements) with strict financial need qualifications. Scholarships from private organizations may be offered on a local, state, national, or even international level - as you might expect, then, there’s no single consolidated database with information on all available grants from private sources. But that doesn’t mean that there aren’t good resources out there for you to start your research! Each private scholarship or grant organization will have its own deadline, eligibility requirements, and application process. The good news is that this means more chances to win money; the bad news is that you’ll have to keep track of a lot of moving parts, especially if you apply to several grant or scholarship programs. Step one is actually finding grant/scholarship programs you think may be a good fit. I personally think this is the hardest part of the process. Then, you just have to be organized about submitting all parts of your applications in a polished and timely fashion. Read more about how to win a full ride scholarship for more information on getting grant aid. You can also check out our guides to individual scholarship programs, like the Gates Millennium and Coca-Cola scholarships, for tips and strategies for winning competitive awards. Check out these guides to learn more about private grants and scholarships: The best scholarship search tools The ultimate local scholarship guide Top scholarships for juniors and seniors in high school How to get a merit scholarship Easy scholarships to win Easy scholarships to apply for Most of these scholarship programs consider both merit and financial need when awarding funds. Federal Work Study The Federal Work Study Program encourages employers to hire students with federal work study awards, which opens up job opportunities for you while you’re in college. This isn’t a grant, loan, or scholarship - you earn a wage like with any other job, but you’re able to use the money as you see fit. You’re considered for a Work Study award when you submit your FAFSA, so you don’t have any extra paperwork to fill out if you’re interested in this need-based program. Read more about Federal Work Study for more information. Summary: How Grants Can Help You Grants - which are available from all sorts of sources - are a great way to make college more affordable, especially if your family is relatively low-income (this increases your chances of qualifying for grant aid). To optimize the amount of grant money you receive, you should check out funding from federal, state, institutional, and private sources. This may mean that you juggle several deadlines and applications, but I promise that if you do your due diligence ahead of time, the money you save will prove worth it in the long run. What’s Next? There are so many other things to learn if you’re interested in budgeting smart for college. Start off by getting the basics on by learning about the four different types of financial aid. Then, read more about reducing your dependence on loans - this means less debt to worry about once you graduate. If you won’t be getting much (or any) financial support from family, you may want to learn more about how to pay for college without your parents. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Friday, February 14, 2020

Explain the different arguments suggesting violent computer games are Essay

Different Arguments Suggesting Violent Computer Games are Morally Wrong - Essay Example Sicart ( 2009, p.35) reveals that the gaming world can itself modify the gameplay, dictating behaviours in various aspects. For instance in the game Burnout 3, the virtual world requires and encourages the player to crash into other nearby vehicles and structures such as bridges and tunnels in order to bag more scoring point and this endeavour enhances the game aggressiveness simultaneously. Likewise, Sicart ( 2009, p. 193) further reveals that in the game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, the player has to engage in sex, and then he is made to kill the computer character in order to snatch the money back. Such games inculcate unethical values in an individual, who is in need to develop values of good to become a virtuous and devoted person which is quite contrary to what these games teach the youth and furthermore, virtual environment rewards points for unethical acts (Sicart 2009, p.193). Floridi ( 2010, p.69) further reinforces the viewpoint that the ultra-violent games such as Grand T heft Auto, Zog’s Nightmare and Manhunt encourage the players to experience manslaughter, run extermination camps, murder for snuff movies and to drive over people in order to gain extra game points. This is causing parents moral concerns with respect to the learning development of their children. To add on, Stevens and Saldamarco (2008, p. 5) state that the game Defcon is designed to encourage a hostile approach amongst the players. The game’s main objective is to trigger nuclear wars and annihilations rewarding the player who lose the least. However, the most repugnant aspect of these computer games especially in god games, surfaces when certain very fundamental religious beliefs are questioned and exploited in designing a gameplay. For instance, Cogburn and Silcox (2009, p.77) depicts that in the game Left Behind it is explained that the adherence and devotion to Christianity is a matter of one’ s personal choice but on the contrary when the player ‘conv erts’ or recruits neutral citizens into his/ her ‘force’, they are required to adhere to his/her each and every command without any question. Moreover, the writers reveal that the ‘converts’ have to wear a purple coloured uniform and they are referred to as ‘units’ than ‘people’, which seems pretty odd since they were supposed to be free will agents who have achieved salvation by adopting Christianity. Another aspect of computer that needs to be shed light onto is the ‘Game Ego’; it is not a kind of a physical manifestation, but an entity that can exert force ( Pivec 2006, p.51). The writer further states that the Game Ego is connected to the player through a motor or kinesthetic link, which removes the barrier between the inside and the outside and the gamer is in oblivious of the fact that he is sinking deeper and more deeper into the realms of the game. If the Game Ego stops responding to the strategy of the game player, the player experiences loss of self control and the feeling of helplessness prevail ( Pivec 2006, p.52).